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OBJECTIVES

At the completion of this chapter, the student should be able to:

1. Find the working factor to convert recipes.

2. Convert standard recipes from larger to smaller amounts, or fromsmaller to larger amounts.

3. Find approximate recipe yields.

4. Use ratios and proportions to convert ingredients for recipes.

5. Find percents for bakers' formulas.

KEY WORDS

standardized recipe

working factor

yield

ratios

proportions

bakers' percentages

During your food service career, occasions will frequently occurwhen you will be required to convert recipes to amounts that will differfrom the original recipe. These amounts may be more or less than therecipe yield. For example, the recipe you have may yield 50 portions,but the need is for 25 or 100 portions.

Some food service establishments produce food from what is referredto as a standardized recipe. This is a recipe that will produce the samequality and quantity each and every time. Standardized recipes are idealfor certain food service operations such as nursing homes, retirementvillages, and some school cafeterias. However, food production will varyin most food service operations, so converting recipes is a veryimportant technique to master. (See Figure 8-1.)

CONVERTING STANDARD RECIPES

It is a simple matter to double or cut a recipe in half. Many timesthis can be done mentally with little or no effort. However, when itbecomes necessary to change a recipe from 12 to 20 portions or from 50to 28, it appears to be more complicated. Actually, the procedure is thesame for both and involves a fairly simple function of finding a workingfactor and multiplying each ingredient quantity by the working factor.The working factor is the number that will be used to multiply theamount of the original ingredients in a recipe to either increase ordecrease a recipe.

[FIGURE 8-1 OMITTED]

The first step in converting a recipe is to find the workingfactor. This is done as follows:

Step 1: Divide the yield desired by original recipe yield.New yield/ Old yield = Working factorStep 2: Multiply each ingredient in the original recipe by theworking factor.Working factor x old quantity = new quantity (desired quantity).

To simplify this procedure, change ingredient pounds to ouncesbefore starting to multiply. This way, it is only necessary to multiplyounces. After multiplying, convert the product back to pounds andounces. If you are using the metric system, this step is not necessary.

Example: A standardized recipe yields 40 portions. Only 30 portionsare desired.

First, you must find the working factor by following the formulagiven in Step 1.

30 New yield/40 Old yield = 3/4 Working factor or .75

Next, convert the quantity of each ingredient in the originalrecipe to ounces and multiply each ingredient by 3/4 or .75, the workingfactor, as stated in Step 2. Convert new amounts back to pounds andounces.

Example: A standardized recipe yields 75 portions. A large party isbooked, and 225 portions are required.

First, you must find the working factor by following the formulagiven in Step 1:

225 New yield/75 Old yield = 3 Working factor

Next, convert the quantity of each ingredient in the originalrecipe to ounces and multiply each ingredient by 3, the working factor,as stated in Step 2. Convert new amounts back to pounds and ounces.

TIPS ... To Insure Perfect SolutionsWhen converting recipes to more portions, realize that the workingfactor will be greater than one.When converting recipes to fewer portions, realize that the workingfactor will be less than one.

SUMMARY REVIEW 8-1

Find the working factor for each problem.

1. The standardized recipe is for 40 portions. The party is for 250guests. --

2. The standardized recipe is for 50 portions. The party is for 35guests. --

3. The standardized recipe is for 75 portions. The party is for 185guests. --

4. The standardized recipe is for 10 portions. The party is for 193guests. --

5. The standardized recipe is for 50 portions. The party is for 15guests. --

6. The standardized recipe is for 30 portions. The party is for 350guests. --

7. The standardized recipe is for 90 portions. The party is for 25guests. --

8. The standardized recipe is for 65 portions. The party is for 185guests. --

9. The standardized recipe is for 25 portions. The party is for 4guests. --

10. The standardized recipe is for 4 portions. The party is for 160guests. --

When working a recipe after a conversion has taken place, somecommon sense must also be applied. You might think of this common senseor judgment as an extra ingredient. For instance, the recipe may notaccount for how fresh or old the spices or herbs are, or how hot thekitchen or bakeshop is when mixing a yeast dough. Common sense orjudgment must be applied when converting any recipe because it may notbe practical to increase or decrease the quantity of each ingredient bythe exact same rate. Many spices and herbs cannot be increased ordecreased at the same rate as other ingredients. This may also be trueof salt, garlic, and sugar in certain situations. Use good judgment inthese situations and carry out tests before deciding on amounts.

Example: The following recipe yields 12 dozen hard rolls. It mustbe converted to yield 9 dozen rolls.

Ingredients for Amount of Amount needed to12 dozen rolls conversion yield 9 dozen rolls7 lb. 8 oz. bread flour 3/4 5 lb. 10 oz.3 oz. salt 2 1/4 oz.3 1/2 oz. granulated sugar 2 5/8 oz.3 oz. shortening 2 1/4 oz.3 oz. egg whites 2 1/4 oz.4 lb. 8 oz. water (variable) 3 lb. 6 oz.4 1/2 oz. yeast, compressed 3 3/8 oz.

Step 1: Find the working factor.

9 dozen new yield/12 dozen old yield = 3/4 Is the working factor

The quantity of each ingredient in the original recipe ismultiplied by 3/4 (working factor).

Step 2: Convert all ingredients.

Example: 7 pounds 8 ounces of bread flour (7 x 16) + 8 = 120 ounces

Example: 3 1/2 ounces of granulated sugar = 7/2 ounces

Step 3: Multiply all ingredients by the working factor (3/4).

Example: bread flour (120 ounces x 3/4 = 90 ounces)

Example: granulated sugar (7/2 ounces x 3/4 = 21/8)

Step 4: Convert new amounts back to pounds and ounces.

Example: bread flour (90 ounces divided by 16 = 5 pounds and 10ounces)

Example: granulated sugar (21/8 = 2 5/8 ounces)

Step 5: Continue converting all ingredients in 9 dozen rollsrecipe.

SUMMARY REVIEW 8-21. The following recipe yields 50 portions of curried lamb.Convert it to yield 150 portions.Ingredients for Amount of Amount Needed to50 Portions Conversion Yield 150 Portions18 lb. lamb shoulder;boneless, cut into1-inch cubes E.P.2 1/2 gallons water2 lb. butter or shortening1 lb. 8 oz. flour1/3 cup curry powder2 qt. tart apples, diced2 lb. onions, diced1/2 tsp. ground cloves2 bay leaves1 tsp. marjoramsalt and pepper to taste2. The following recipe yields 100 portions of Hungarian goulash.Convert it to yield 75 portions.Ingredients for Amount of Amount Needed to100 Portions Conversion Yield 75 Portions36 lb. beef chuck orshoulder, diced 1-inch cubes E.P.1 1/4 oz. garlic, minced1 lb. 4 oz. flour1 1/4 oz. chili powder10 oz. paprika2 lb. tomato puree2 gal. brown stock4 bay leaves3/4 oz. caraway seeds3 lb. 8 oz. onions, mincedsalt and pepper to taste3. The following recipe yields nine 8-inch lemon pies. Convert itto yield six 8-inch pies.Ingredients for Amount of Amount Needed to9 Pies Conversion Yield 6 Pies4 lb. flour3 lb. b oz. granulated sugar1/2 oz. salt3 oz. lemon gratings1 lb. water8 oz. corn starch12 oz. egg yolks1 lb. b oz. lemon juice4 oz. butter, meltedyellow color, as needed4. The following recipe yields 12 dozen hard rolls. Convert it toyield 48 dozen rolls.Ingredients for Amount of Amount Needed to12 Dozen Rolls Conversion Yield 48 Dozen Rolls7 lb. 8 oz. bread flour3 oz. salt3 1/2 oz. granulated sugar3 oz. shortening3 oz. egg whites4 lb. 8 oz. water (variable)4 1/2 oz. yeast, compressed5. The following recipe yields 8 dozen soft dinner rolls. Convertit to yield 5 dozen rolls.Ingredients for Amount of Amount Needed to8 Dozen Rolls Conversion Yield S Dozen Rolls10 oz. granulated sugar10 oz. hydrogenated shortening1 oz. salt3 oz. dry milk4 oz. whole eggs3 lb. 12 oz. bread flour2 lb. water5 oz. yeast, compressed

FINDING APPROXIMATE RECIPE YIELD

Yield is defined as the amount of portions, servings, or units aparticular recipe or formula will produce. It is one of the mostimportant features of a recipe or formula. Yield is probably one of thefirst items a cook will look at when selecting a certain recipe forpreparation. Observing a recipe or formula yield provides the preparerwith an approximate guide to the numbers the recipe or formula willproduce. The yield must also be known before conversion can take place.

Most recipes provide an approximate guide as to the number oramounts the recipe will produce. However, occasions arise when you willwant to determine your own yield because the suggested recipe or formulaportion size is too large or small for your need.

You may also wish to work out your own recipe for a preparation--arecipe you have used many times but for which you have never determinedan approximate yield.

Suggested recipe or formula yields will fluctuate if you determinea larger or smaller portion is required. To show how this situationcould happen, let us assume a yellow cake batter is prepared from arecipe that states the approximate yield is twenty 14-ounce cakes (14ounces of batter used in each cake). You wish to use a smaller pan thatwill only hold 10 ounces. The yield will, of course, fluctuate andproduce a larger amount of yellow cakes.

It is for these reasons that the student cook or baker mustunderstand how a yield can be determined by applying some simplemathematics. The chef can approximate the serving size by determining aformula yield (see Figure 8-2).

The yield for some recipes or formulas is found by preparing acertain amount, determining a serving portion, and measuring it to seewhat it will produce. The yield for other recipes-such as cake or muffinbatters, roll or sweet doughs, pie filling and some cookie doughs-can bedetermined by taking the total weight of all ingredients used in thepreparation and dividing that figure by the weight of an individualportion or unit. Let us take the formula of a white cake and of a rolldough to show how an approximate yield can be obtained by this method.

[FIGURE 8-2 OMITTED]

The formula is:

Total weight of preparation / weight of portion = recipe yield.

Example:

White CakeIngredients: Find the approximate yield ?2 lb. 8 oz. cake flour (40 oz.)1 lb. 12 oz. shortening (28 oz.)3 lb. 2 oz. granulated sugar (50 oz.)1 1/2 oz. salt (1.5 oz.)2 1/2 oz. baking powder (2.5 oz.)14 oz. water (14 oz.)2 1/2 oz. dry milk (2.5 oz.)10 oz. whole eggs (10 oz.)1 lb. egg whites (16 oz.)1 lb. water (16 oz.)vanilla to taste (to taste)total ounces = 180.5 oz.

The total weight of all ingredients is 11 pounds 4 1/2 ounces. Eachcake is to contain 14 ounces of batter. The first step is to convert theweight of all ingredients to ounces, since only like things can bedivided: 11 pounds 4 1/2 ounces contains 180 1/2 ounces. The second stepis to divide the weight of one cake (14 ounces) into the total weight ofall ingredients:

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

When preparing a cake from scratch--that is, step-by-steppreparation--the baker must first determine the size of each pan to beused and the amount of batter each pan is to contain. He or she maydetermine an 8-inch cake pan will be used and each pan is to contain 14ounces of batter to produce the size of cake desired. Many times thecake recipe will state, in the method of preparation, the amount ofbatter to place in a certain size pan. Usually the type of cake preparedwill have a bearing on the amount of batter placed in each pan. Forexample, light semi-sponge cake batters will not require as much batteras a pound cake.

There is no reason to carry the division any further because onlyfigures on the left side of the decimal point are whole numbers. So 12cakes, each containing 14 ounces of batter, were realized from thisrecipe.

When preparing a roll dough, the baker must determine how much eachroll will weigh. Some bakers like a larger roll than others. The usualsize is 1 1/4 to 2 ounces. Once the size is determined, an approximateyield is easy to find.

Example:

Soft Dinner Roll DoughIngredients: Find the approximate yield ?1 lb. 4 oz. granulated sugar1 lb. 4 oz. shortening2 oz. salt6 oz. dry milk6 oz. whole eggs7 lb. 8 oz. bread flour4 lb. water10 oz. compressed yeast

The total weight of all ingredients is 15 pounds 8 ounces. Eachroll is to weigh 1 1/2 ounces. The first step is to convert the weightof all ingredients to ounces, since only like things can be divided; 15pounds 8 ounces contain 248 ounces. Now, dividing the total weight bythe weight of one roll gives the recipe yield:

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

Thus, the yield is 165 rolls or 13 3/4 dozen rolls, or 13 dozen and9 rolls, when yielding a 1.5-ounce roll.

Most recipes used in the commercial kitchen will be stated inweights, and an approximate yield is easier to determine wheningredients are listed in weights. Weights will also produce a moreaccurate preparation. There are occasions when recipes will be stated inmeasures. In this case, the formula used to determine a yield will bethe same, but the measuring units in finding an approximate yield willdiffer.

Example:

Honey Cream DressingIngredients: Find the approximate yield ?3 cups cream cheese2 cups honey1/2 cup pineapple juice (variable)1/4 tsp. salt2 1/2 qt. mayonnaise

In this example, total cups must be determined. There are 1 5 1/2cups in the preparation. A 2-ounce ladle is used to portion. A 2-ounceladle contains 1/4 cup, so, following the formula given to determine anapproximate yield, the math involved would be as follows:

1 5 1/2 cups (total measure of preparation) / 1/4 cup (portionmeasure)

= 31/2 x 4/1 = 62 portions (yield).

SUMMARY REVIEW 8-3

1. Determine the approximate yield of the following formula if eachcoffee cake is to contain a 12-ounce unit of sweet dough.Coffee Cake Ingredients Find the approximate yield ?1 lb. granulated sugar1 lb. golden shortening1 oz. salt3 lb. bread flour1 lb. 8 oz. pastry flour12 oz. whole eggs4 oz. dry milk2 lb. water8 oz. compressed yeastmace to tastevanilla to taste2. Determine the approximate yield of the following formula if eachcookie is to contain 12 ounces of dough.Fruit Tea Cookies Find the approximate yield ?1 lb. 6 oz. shortening1 lb. 6 oz. powdered sugar2 lb. 8 oz. pastry flour2 oz. liquid milk6 oz. raisins, chopped2 oz. pecans, chopped3 oz. pineapple, chopped2 oz. peaches, chopped8 oz. whole eggs1/4 oz. baking soda1/4 oz. vanilla1/2 oz. salt3. Determine the approximate yield of the following formula if eachcake is to contain 11 ounces of batter.Yellow Cake Ingredients Find the approximate yield ?2 lb. 8 oz. cake flour1 lb. 6 oz. shortening3 lb. 2 oz. granulated sugar1 oz. salt1 3/4 oz. baking powder4 oz. dry milk1 lb. 4 oz. water1 lb. 10 oz. whole eggs12 oz. water4 oz. vanilla4. Determine the approximate yield of the following recipe if eachgelatin mold is to hold 4 cup of liquid gelatin mix.Sunshine Salad Find the approximate yield ?1 pt. lemon-flavored gelatin1 qt. hot water1 qt. cold water1/4 cup cider vinegar1 qt. grated carrots1 pt. pineapple, crushed5. Determine the approximate yield of the following recipe if a6-ounce ladle (3/4 cup) is used to portion.Beef Stroganoff Find the approximate yield ?2 gal. beef tenderloin,cut into thin strips E.P.1 cup flour1/2 cup shortening3 qt. water1/2 cup tomato puree1/2 cup cider vinegar1 lb. onions, minced1 qt. mushrooms, sliced1 qt. sour cream1 tbsp. salt3 bay leaves

Practical Use of Ratios and Proportions

Ratios and proportions were covered in Chapter 4. This chapterrequires the student to use them in solving problems. The term ratio isused to express a comparison between two numbers. A ratio between twoquantities is the number of times one contains the other. For example,to prepare pie dough, the baker must use 1 quart of liquid to every 4pounds of flour. Therefore, the ratio is 1 to 4.

Mathematical or word problems that include ratios may be solved byusing proportions. A proportion is defined as a relation in size,number, amount, or degree of one thing compared to another. For example,when preparing the pie dough, the ratio is 1 to 4--that is, 1 quart ofliquid to 4 pounds of flour. It is important to realize that the orderin which the numbers are placed when expressing a ratio is crucial, aswas explained in Chapter 4.

Using the ratio from above, we will illustrate how to solve thefollowing word problem using a proportion. Your chef tells you to make10 pounds of pie dough. You must find out how much liquid is required.

As a review from Chapter 4, this is the information aboutproportions that you must know.

The unknown is represented by an x, since that is the answer to be determined. "Is to" in a mathematical equation is represented by a full colon (:). The numbers on the outside of the equation are called extremes. The numbers on the inside of the equation are called means.

Step 1: Set up a proportion.

How much liquid is required to make 10 pounds of pie dough? Youknow that when preparing pie dough, the ratio is 1 to 4--that is, 1quart of liquid to 4 pounds of flour.

Step 2: Set up a mathematical equation.

How much liquid is required is represented by the x, which is theunknown factor.

The pie dough is represented by the 10, the pounds of pie doughthat have to be made.

The 1 is equal to 1 quart of liquid.

The 4 is equal to 4 pounds of flour.

So, the equation reads: The unknown amount of liquid to 10 poundsof pie dough is equal to 1 quart of liquid to 4 pounds of flour.

x : 10 = 1 : 4

Step 3: Multiply the means together (1 times 10), which is equal to10. Multiply the extremes together (x times 4), which is equal to 4x.

The formula now reads:

4x = 10

Step 4: Divide both sides of the equation by the number next to thex.

4x/4 = 10/4

(The fours on the left side of the = sign cancel each other out.)You are left with x = 10 divided by (/) 4 = 2.5

Step 5: The cook needs 2.5 quarts of liquid to make 10 pounds ofpie dough.

SUMMARY REVIEW 8-4

Use proportions to solve the following problems. Before setting upthe proportion, convert all amounts to like amounts. For example, if theratio is stated as a quart and the problem is stated as gallons, convertall gallons to quarts before attempting to solve the problem.

1. Determine the amounts of liquid required if a pie dough formulacontains the following amounts of flour. The ratio is 1 part liquid to 4parts flour.

a. 20 pounds --

b. 12 pounds --

c. 16 pounds --

d. 18 pounds --

2. Determine the amount of dry milk required to produce thefollowing amounts of liquid milk. The ratio is 4 ounces of dry milk to 1quart of water.

a. 1 1/2 gallons liquid milk --

b. 3 gallons liquid milk --

c. 3 1/2 quarts liquid milk --

d. 4 3/4 gallons liquid milk --

3. Determine the amount of unflavored gelatin required to jell thefollowing amounts of aspic. The ratio is b ounces of unflavored gelatinto each gallon of water.

a. 6 quarts aspic --

b. 1 3/4 gallons aspic --

c. 3 1/2 gallons aspic --

d. 2 1/2 gallons aspic --

4. Determine the amount of liquid needed to prepare the followingamounts of raw barley. The ratio calls for 4 parts of liquid to every 1part of raw barley.

a. 1 pint raw barley --

b. 3 pints raw barley --

c. 3 quarts raw barley --

d. 1 cup raw barley --

5. Determine the amount of pudding powder needed to prepare thefollowing amounts of pudding. The ratio is 3.25 ounces of pudding powderto every pint of milk.

a. 3 quarts pudding --

b. 2 1/2 quarts pudding --

c. b quarts pudding --

d. 1 1/2 quarts pudding --

6. Determine the amount of dry nondairy creamer required to producethe following amounts of liquid cream. To convert dry nondairy creamerto liquid, mix 1 pint of dry creamer with 1 quart of hot water.

a. 2 gallons liquid cream --

b. 1 1/2 gallons liquid cream --

c. 1/2 gallon liquid cream --

d. 3 1/2 gallons liquid cream --

7. Determine the amount of dry instant potato powder needed toprepare the following amounts of mashed potatoes. To prepare mashedpotatoes using the dry instant potato powder, use 1 pound 13 ounces ofthe powder to each gallon of water or milk.

a. 2 gallons mashed potatoes --

b. 6 gallons mashed potatoes --

c. 2 1/2 gallons mashed potatoes --

d. 4 1/2 gallons mashed potatoes --

8. When preparing pasta or egg noodles, use 1 gallon of boilingwater to every pound of pasta. Determine the amount of liquid requiredto cook the pasta.

a. 3.5 pounds pasta --

b. 5 pounds pasta --

c. 6.5 pounds pasta --

d. 7 pounds pasta --

9. When preparing egg wash, how many eggs will be needed whenpreparing the following amounts? To prepare a fairly rich egg wash, mixtogether 4 whole eggs to every quart of milk.

a. 1 cup milk --

b. 1 pint milk --

c. 2 quarts milk --

d. 3 quarts milk --

10. Determine the amount of flour needed if the following amountsof shortening are used when preparing pan grease. To prepare pan grease,thoroughly mix together 8 ounces of flour to every pound of shortening.

a. 1 1/2 pounds of shortening --

b. 8 ounces of shortening --

c. 12 ounces of shortening --

d. 2 3/4 pounds of shortening --

BAKER'S PERCENTAGE

In cooking, if a recipe or formula should become unbalanced or if amistake should occur when adding ingredients, the situation might easilybe corrected by making a few adjustments. This is not the case whenworking with baking formulas. Bakers use a simple yet versatile systemdesigned to balance all formulas with flour as the main ingredient. Eachminor ingredient is a percentage of the main (flour) ingredient.Industry standards determine the percentages of each ingredient in mostof the popular formulas to ensure that the formula is balanced.

The ingredients in baking formulas must be balanced if the finishedproduct is to possess all the qualities necessary to please the customerand to warrant return sales. Most formulas used in bakeshops today havebeen developed in research laboratories operated by the companies thatmanufacture the products bakers use. The formulas are used to test themanufacturer's products and are passed on to bakers in the hopethat they will use the manufacturer's products.

Keeping in mind that flour is the main ingredient, bakers'percentages designate the amount of each ingredient that would berequired if 100 pounds of flour were used. Thus, flour is always 100percent. If, for instance, two kinds of flour were used in apreparation, the total amounts of the two would represent 100 percentand any other ingredient that weighs the same as the flour is alsolisted at 100 percent. To find ingredient percentages, divide the totalweight of the ingredient by the weight of the flour, then multiply by100 percent.

Example:

The following ingredients for a yellow pound cake illustrate howthese percentages are found.

Yellow Pound Cake Recipe Baker'sIngredients Weights percentageCake flour 2 lb. 8 oz., or 40 ounces 100%Vegetable shortening 1 lb. 12 oz., or 28 ouncesGranulated sugar 2 lb. 8 oz., or 40 ouncesSalt 1.5 ouncesWater 1 lb. 4 oz., or 20 ouncesDry milk 2.5 ouncesWhole eggs 1 lb. 12 oz., or 28 ouncesVanilla to taste --Total Weight 160 ounces

In the above chart, all ingredients have been converted to ouncesso we can calculate like amounts.

To determine the percentage of each item, take the weight of eachingredient and divide by the weight of the flour (since the flourrepresents 100%), and then multiply by 100%.

Weight of each ingredient / total weight of the flour times (x) 100%= percentage of each item.

Here is how we determine the percentage of vegetable shortening:

Vegetable shortening (28 ounces) is divided by the flour (40ounces) = .7 X 100% = 70%

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

After doing the math, the chart looks as follows. Please check ourfigures in the chart to practice obtaining the baker's percentage.

Yellow Pound Cake Recipe Baker'sIngredients Weights percentageCake flour 2 lb. 8 oz., or 40 ounces 100%Vegetable shortening 1 lb. 12 oz., or 28 ounces 70%Granulated sugar 2 lb. 8 oz., or 40 ounces 100%Salt 1.5 ounces 3.75%Water 1 lb. 4 oz., or 20 ounces 50%Dry milk 2.5 ounces 6.25%Whole eggs 1 lb. 12 oz., or 28 ounces 70%Vanilla to taste -- --Total Weight 160 ounces 400%

The advantage of finding and using these percentages, when flour isthe main ingredient, is that the formula can be changed easily to anyyield and, if a single ingredient needs to be altered, it can be donewithout changing the complete formula.

Why Are Baker's Percentages Used?

One advantage occurs when new items are added to the recipe, inorder to enhance the recipe. For example, the authors would like to addchocolate chips to the recipe to make it a yellow chocolate chip poundcake. If they add 8 oz. of chocolate chips, they figure out thebaker's percentage of chocolate chips based upon the weight of theflour. They do not have to change all the ingredients and all thepercentages. In this example, 8 (the ounces of chocolate chips) isdivided by 40 (the ounces of the flour). The chocolate chip percentageis 20%. Notice that the sum of the total weight and the sum of thebaker's percentage have also been increased.

Yellow Pound Cake Recipe Modified with Chocolate ChipsIngredients Weights Baker's percentageCake flour 2 lb. 8 oz., or 40 ounces 100%Vegetable shortening 1 lb. 12 oz., or 28 ounces 70%Granulated sugar 2 lb. 8 oz., or 40 ounces 100%Salt 1.5 ounces 3.75%Water 1 lb. 4 oz., or 20 ounces 50%Dry milk 2.5 ounces 6.25%Chocolate chips 8 ounces 20%Whole eggs 1 lb. 12 oz., or 28 ounces 70%Vanilla to taste -- --Total Weight 168 ounces 420%

The second advantage occurs when the amount of flour is changed. Ifthe baker has a 5-pound bag of flour left over and wants to use it, thebaker can make up another batch of yellow chocolate chip pound cake byusing the baker's percentage. The baker first changes the weight ofthe flour to 80 ounces. The remaining ingredients are calculated bymultiplying the baker's percentages from the original recipe. Theamount of the vegetable shortening is now increased to 56 ounces (70% x80) or 3 1/2 pounds (56 divided by 16 is equal to 3 pounds and 8ounces). The baker continues to convert all ingredients using thebaker's percentage method for each ingredient. This will keep therecipe in balance and assure consistency for each cake.

The third advantage occurs when the total formula weight for therecipe is known and your head baker tells you to make up a certainamount of dough. As an example, your head baker tells you to make up 50pounds of batter for our yellow chocolate chip pound cake. You know thatfor one cake, you must use 168 ounces total weight for the recipe. Howmuch of each ingredient will be used for 50 pounds (16 x 50 = 800ounces)? This is how you solve the problem using the baker'spercentage.

Step 1: Add up the total baker's percentage formula. Theanswer comes to 420%.

Step 2: Calculate the total flour weight using this formula:

Total formula weight = 800 ounces/Total formula percentage = 420%

Or

800 ounces/4.20 = 190.47619 total ounces of flour

Step 3: The total flour weight is 190.47619 ounces of flour neededto make 50 pounds of batter. Mathematically, this is the correct answer.Realistically, we would increase this to 191 ounces.

Step 4: Convert each ingredient using the flour as the base. In theoriginal recipe, our chocolate chips weighed 8 ounces, or 20% of therecipe.

Using the baker's percentage of 20%, multiply the .20 x 191,which equals 38 ounces.

The end result is the recipe shown in the following chart, with ayield of 50 pounds of batter.

Yellow Pound Cake Recipe Modified with Chocolate Chips(Yield: 50 Pounds of Batter) Baker'sIngredients Weights percentageCake flour 11 lb. 15 oz., or 191 ounces 100%Vegetable shortening 8 lb. 6 oz., or 134 ounces 70%Granulated sugar 11 lb. 15 oz., or 191 ounces 100%Salt 7.16 ounces 3.75%Water 5 lb. 15 oz., or 95 ounces 50%Dry milk 12 ounces 6.25%Chocolate chips 2 lb. 6 oz., or 38 ounces 20%Whole eggs 8 lb. 6 oz., or 134 ounces 70%Vanilla to taste -- --Total Weight 50 lb. 2.12 oz., or 802.16 ounces 420%

Notice that the total amount of the batter is not exactly 50pounds. This allows for losses in preparing the batter. Rounding upusing the baker's percentage does not affect the proportion of therecipe.

What if I want to increase the yield from 1 cake to 20 cakes; do Ihave to use the baker's percentage?

You may go through all the steps, but, realistically, it would bebetter to use the working factor method that was covered earlier in thischapter.

New recipe/Old recipe = Working factor

20/1 = 20

In this example, all of the ingredients will be multiplied by theworking factor of 20. As an example, the chocolate chips will bemultiplied by 20. This results in 160 ounces of chocolate chips, or 10pounds.

SUMMARY REVIEW 8-5

Find the percent of each ingredient used in the following formulas.Remember that flour is always 100%. Round to the tenth place.1. Pie dough(a) Ingredients Weight PercentagePastry flour 10 1b. --Shortening 7 lb. 8 oz. --Salt 5 oz. --Sugar 3 oz. --Cold water 2 lb. 8 oz. --Dry milk 3 oz. --Using the percentage found for each ingredient, determine the amountof each ingredient if the flour amount is changed to 12 pounds.(b) Ingredients WeightPastry flour 12 lb.Shortening --Salt --Sugar --Cold water --Dry milk --2. Golden Dinner Roll Dough(a) Ingredients Weight PercentageBread flour 9 lb. --Pastry flour 1 lb. --Shortening 1 lb. --Sugar 18 oz. --Eggs 13 oz. --Salt 5 oz. --Dry milk 8 oz. --Compressed yeast 10 oz --Cold water 5 lb. --Using the percentage found for each ingredient, determine theamount of each ingredient if the flour amount is changed to: breadflour 10 lb., pastry flour 2 lb.(b) Ingredients WeightBread flour --Pastry flour --Shortening --Sugar --Eggs --Salt --Dry milk --Compressed yeast --Cold water --3. Brown Sugar Cookies(a) Ingredients Weight PercentagePastry flour 4 lb. 8 oz. --Hydrogenated shortening 2 lb. 4 oz. --Whole eggs 1 lb. --Brown sugar 3 lb. 2 oz. --Salt 1 oz. --Baking soda 1/2 oz. --Vanilla to taste --Using the percentage found for each ingredient, determine theamount of each ingredient if the flour amount is changed to 6 lb.10 oz. Round to the nearest tenth.(b) Ingredients WeightPastry flourHydrogenated shorteningWhole eggsBrown sugarSaltBaking sodaVanilla

DISCUSSION QUESTION 8-A

What is the purpose of using the working factor? What happens ifthe formula is figured incorrectly?

Chef Sez ..."If you are the chef owner of a restaurant, youmust have a knowledge of math and how touse it or else you will go under (bankrupt).When you are the head chef, if you are notgood at math you lose your job."

Andre Soltner

Founder and former owner of Lutece

Master Chef, Senior Lecturer

The French Culinary Institute

New York City

To fully understand Chef Soltner's remarks and to discover whyLutece has been called the finest French restaurant in America, theauthors recommend the book, Lutece, A Day in the Life of America'sGreatest Restaurant, by Irene Daria. The book is published by RandomHouse, copyright 1993.

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